Milgram Obedience Study / Stanford Prison Experiment / Social Cognition / Robbers Cave Experiment
Students of psychology would not be surprised by some of the key statements made by René Girard and his mimetic theory.
Indeed social psychology time and again shows how people’s social behavior and self-concepts are shaped by imitation processes and scapegoat mechanisms, as stressed by mimetic theory. For instance, Stanley Milgram’s obedience study and the Stanford Prison Experiment show how powerful individuals as well as socially established abstract norms of “role” models are easily obeyed (imitated). The attribution theory teaches how someone tends to “blame” circumstances to justify his or her own “bad” behavior, while, on the other hand, he or she tends to hold others personally responsible for their “loathsome” conduct. Apparently, others are not so easily excused and appear as convenient scapegoats. People who play the blame game consider their own behavior to be “very different” from similar behavior in others. Insights into social identities reveal how gaining an identity through conformity (again by imitating others, of course) leads to stereotyping of and competing with others (as common enemies and scapegoats of one’s group). Here also, there is a tendency to exaggerate differences between one’s own group and other groups. The conduct of one’s own group is easily justified, while similar conduct of a competing group is considered “unjust”. The problem, of course, is that competing groups imitate this reasoning for their own particular group and thus reinforce the rivalry between each other (read René Girard’s Battling to the End in this regard, on mimetic rivalry on a planetary scale – highly recommended!).
These are all but some preliminary considerations regarding the relationship between mimetic theory and social psychology. There is much more to explore in this relationship. So without further ado, in order to know where to start, here is a short overview of some basic studies and concepts of social psychology which relate directly to mimetic theory.
1. Stanley Milgram’s Obedience Study (click for more information)
Not surprisingly, in light of mimetic theory, disobedience is more likely to occur:
- when the experimenter leaves the room
- when the orders are given by an “ordinary” man
- when the subject works with peers who refuse to go on
- [considering the philosophy of Emmanuel Levinas]
when the “learner” is in the same room
2. The Stanford Prison Experiment (Philip Zimbardo – click for more)
People adapt to the social norms of the role assigned to them. Prisoners become distressed, helpless and panicky. Guards become nice, or “tough but fair”, or tyrannical.
3. Social Cognition
Social cognition is an area of social psychology concerned with social influences on thought, memory, perception and all kinds of other cognitive processes. More specifically, researchers are interested in how people’s self-perception affects relationships, thoughts, beliefs and values. Here are some findings regarding attribution, factors in attitude change and conformity.
People are motivated to explain their own and others’ behavior by attributing its causes to situation or disposition. Again, not surprisingly in light of mimetic theory, people show the tendency to overestimate personality factors in explaining the behavior of others, while they underestimate situational influence. On the other hand, the concept of self-serving bias points to the fact that people often do the opposite when explaining their own behavior: people try to justify themselves.
Major factors in attitude change:
- endorsement by an admired or attractive person
- a leader who offers unconditional love, acceptance and attention
- the creation of a new identity based on a group
- repetition (imitation, indeed) of ideas and assertions; entrapment (justification of an escalating commitment); isolation from other sources of information
Conformity (click for more) (see also Solomon Asch, click here),
- groupthink: in close-knit groups all members tend to think alike and suppress disagreement for the sake of harmony
- diffusion of responsibility
- bystander apathy
- deindividuation (the loss of awareness of one’s own individuality in groups or crowds)
(aids survival by making people feel attached to and willing to work for their own group)
- group identity and social identity
(a person’s self-concept based on an identification with a group, a nation or a culture, or with gender or other social roles)
- “us vs. them” social identities that are strengthened when groups compete (in-group vs. out-group; see Muzafer Sherif and his Robbers Cave experiment)
- stereotypes that distort reality for they:
exaggerate differences between groups and underestimate differences within groups; allow for disliking others so people feel closer to their own group and inflate self-worth